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The worldwide status of stick insects (Insecta: Phasmida) as pests of agriculture and forestry, with a generalised theory of phasmid outbreaks

Submitted by edwbaker on Mon, 2015-06-22 11:48

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Baker, Edward


Agriculture and Food Security, Volume 4, Issue 22 (2015)



Agriculture, Forestry, Infestation, Pests


Stick insects have been reported as significant phytophagous pests of agricultural and timber crops since the 1880s in North America, China, Australia and Pacific Islands. Much of the early literature comes from practical journals for farmers, and even twentieth Century reports can be problematic to locate. Unlike the plaguing Orthoptera, there has been no synthesis of the pest status of this enigmatic order of insects. This paper provides a literature synthesis of those species known to cause infestation or that are known to damage plants of economic importance; summarises historical and modern techniques for infestation management; and lists known organisms with potential for use as biological control agents. A generalised theory of outbreaks is presented and suggestions for future research efforts are made.

All content by +Ed Baker